In his book Visions (1998), Michio Kaku imagined a USA in 2020 in which microprocessors are as cheap as scrap paper, and the surface of the earth is an intelligent membrane: Smart bathrooms provide constant feedback and checkups on our health, and traffic jams have long been eliminated by computer-controlled cars driving in unison six feet apart.

In his novel After London (1895), Richard Jefferies imagined a future, post-disaster England, in which roads were overgrown with greenery, fields overtaken with thorns, briars, brambles and saplings, and in place of London, an oozy black water swamp, from which exhaled a vapour so fatal that no animal could endure it.